Tag Archives: cytokines

Psychoneuroimmunology: Where kynurenic acid fits

Psychoneuroimmunology. It’s a mouthful, but that’s to be expected when trying to find one word to describe the interaction of the nervous, endocrine, and immune systems and the impact this has on health and disease. Robert Ader, considered the founding … Continue reading

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NeuroImmune Transmitters: Glycine

Glycine is a neurotransmitter for which elevated levels have been observed to correlate with inflammation.  From the literature, it has been demonstrated that glycine has an immunomodulatory role – inhibiting, as well as stimulating, pro-inflammatory cytokine production and synthesis.  However, … Continue reading

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NeuroImmune Transmitters: Epinephrine

When encountering a highly stressful situation – for example, being chased by a bear in the woods – epinephrine is released by the adrenals to support the “fight or flight” response.  Epinephrine is integral to the stress response, but epinephrine … Continue reading

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NeuroImmune Transmitters: GABA

When considering neurotransmitters having an effect on immune function, GABA is not one that commonly comes to mind.  Yet, recent research has determined that GABA, the most calming neurotransmitter in the central nervous system, does have an effect on immune … Continue reading

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Trauma-related stress: What happens when neuro/endo/immune soldiers are still on active duty?

What is PTSD? We’ve all heard the reports of soldiers and/or veterans coming back from active duty suffering from post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), but what does that entail?  PTSD can occur after someone has been through a traumatic or life-threatening … Continue reading

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NeuroImmune Transmitters: Histamine

It’s allergy season, and that means antihistamines will be flying off drugstore shelves.  Antihistamines are often one of the first-line therapies used by allergy sufferers.  These histamine receptor antagonists, work by blocking histamine activity and signaling.  Histamine is best known … Continue reading

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